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1 year ago

In this study we developed

In this study, we developed an effective strategy to greatly improve the equilibrium adsorption capacity of salicylic acid. For this purpose, Biotin-HPDP magnetic poly (glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) was firstly prepared by suspension copolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and divinylbenzene (DVB) with the addition of oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, then hydrophobic polydivinylbenzene (PDVB) networks were interpenetrated in the pores of the magnetic PGMA networks, and the hydrophobic–hydrophobic magnetic PGMA/PDVB IPNs was synthesized according to a typical IPNs technology. After that, an amination reaction was performed for the magnetic PGMA/PDVB IPNs and the first hydrophobic PGMA networks in the IPNs were transformed to hydrophilic poly (methyl acryloyl diethylenetriamine) (PMADETA) networks, and hence a magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs was synthesized. After characterizing the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), N2 adsorption isotherms, vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the adsorption property of the magnetic PMADETA/PDVB IPNs was evaluated from aqueous solution by using salicylic acid as the model adsorbate, the equilibrium adsorption and column adsorption were investigated in detail.

1 year ago

Selected water quality parameters of SMPs mg L

Selected water quality parameters Amrubicin SMPs (mg/L).ConditionsDOCTNNH4+-NNO3−-NNO2−-NDONNS23.0 ± 2.5a7.6 ± 0.40.041 ± 0.0030.99 ± 0.070.019 ± 0.0026.5 ± 0.3HA26.6 ± 1.3290 ± 7240 ± 141.38 ± 0.080.017 ± 0.00348.6 ± 7.2HS60.7 ± 2.821.6 ± 1.70.161 ± 0.0074.98 ± 0.180.181 ± 0.01416.3 ± 1.5HM40.6 ± 2.93.8 ± 0.30.061 ± 0.0071.00 ± 0.030.011 ± 0.0032.7 ± 0.2HT190.0 ± 1.433.2 ± 2.119.372 ± 0.9322.59 ± 0.020.030 ± 0.00411.2 ± 1.2DOC = dissolved organic carbon; TN = total nitrogen; NH4+-N = ammonia nitrogen; NO3−-N = nitrate nitrogen; NO2−-N = nitrite 'Amrubicin' nitrogen; DON = dissolved organic nitrogen; NS = normal state, HA = high ammonia content, HS = high salinity, HM = high level of heavy metal, HT = high temperature.aValues are sex hormones presented as mean ± standard deviation (based on duplicate analyses).Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

In the main study the gas temperatures

In tsa hdac main study, the gas temperatures in the kiln were lower than the set temperature of 400 °C when treating all ash samples. The highest temperature, 386 °C, was reached in experiments with ash A, while in experiments with ashes B and C gas temperatures reached 352 and 366 °C, respectively. The lower temperatures recorded in experiments with ash A during the main study compared to the screening study could be due to increases in its moisture content as the ash exhibited hygroscopic properties. Overall, the lower gas temperatures likely depended on the ash heat transfer capacity as wall temperatures were the same in all experiments. Stable treatment temperatures were reached approximately 40 min into the 120-min treatment time (Fig. S2, Supplementary information). Ash B differed in behavior from ashes A and C, as geological time tended to stick to the kiln wall while A and C samples were coarser and tumbled more. This difference may have been due to ash B’s higher chlorine content, as alkali chlorides tend to be sticky and bind together.

1 year ago

Fig xA Cardinal points of an optical imaging system

Fig. 4 shows the effect of ambient air pressure on mean droplet size for PL = 1.0 MPa and PL = 4.0 MPa. The data for PL = 3.0 MPa are quite similar to those for PL = 4.0 MPa. The results show that under each certain pressure of water mist system, the mean water mist droplet diameter decreases with a decrease in ambient air pressure from 0.10 to 0.02 MPa, where as it Atomoxetine increases with a decrease in working pressure. This variation in the effect of the ambient air pressure on the mean diameter of water mist droplets is in partial agreement with the results reported by Wang and Lefebvre [5] and [25]. The results obtained by Wang and Lefebvre showed that the Sauter mean diameter of a diesel-oil spray increased with an increase in ambient pressure up to a maximum value (i.e., 0.1–0.4 MPa) and then decreased with a further increase in Pa. The data reported in biosphere study may partially fill the gap in the literature data, especially for the cases of low ambient air pressure, i.e., Pa < 0.1 MPa.

1 year ago

Summary of features of nanoparticle

Fig. 2. Schematic CHF model diagrams and correlations: (a) Kutateladze and Zuber [24], (b) Haramura and Katto [27] and (c) Kandlikar [30].Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Additionally, to reasonably explain CHF phenomena on micro/nanostructured surfaces, a modified macrolayer dry-out model [36], the effect of thermal conduction on a heater surface [25], and capillary wicking [37] have been presented as key mechanisms. However, these HKI272 are qualitative ideas and a generalized theory has not yet been established.
Although CHF phenomena are extremely complicated and occur in a severe boiling state, secondary compounds may be possible to partially explain their physical nature based on the above researches. Therefore, for the accurate prediction of the CHF value and realizing a further optimized design of a CHF enhancement surface, a comprehensive understanding of previously established researches is required.
2. Fabrication and preparation of micro/nanostructured surfaces for boiling heat transfer enhancement

1 year ago

In order to stabilise the CO concentration in the atmosphere

Fossil fuels today represent around 85% of the global primary energy demand. The trend is that fossil fuels – oil, coal and natural gas – will continue to meet most of the world's energy needs in the foreseeable future (IEA, 2012b). Fossil fuels will remain the Ezetimibe source of energy through to 2035 in all IEA scenarios, although their respective share in the mix in 2035 varies markedly. It is no table that renewables, except hydro and bioenergy, still meet less than 1% of the total primary energy demand. Their share is expected to rise, but in absolute figures the amount of fossil fuels will also increase, and therefore related CO2 emissions. There is nothing in the on-going trends that contradicts this conclusion, although there are of course a lot of uncertainties, mainly political, regarding fossil fuels as pointed out in the World Energy Outlook 2012 (IEA, 2012b). However, the belief that renewables like solar and wind energy can play a central role to reduce GHG emissions just does not seem realistic. The strong global demand for fossil fuels is influential in international relations, where conflicts can suddenly change the arena. This can already be seen in developments in the Middle East, Northern Africa and Eastern Europe, and in more recent crisis in Ukraine. A global economic crisis and/or conflicts escalating to war could suddenly decrease GHG emissions. This is, however, a mitigation option, which no one would wish for.

1 year ago

Data sources Data were obtained

Hence, the total amount of GHG emissions from the logistics services in a particular year K02288 given in Eq. (2) as follows:equation(2)GHGtotal=∑mj=14∑di=1k[(WHK→di,mj+Wdi→HK,mj)×DISTHK−di,mj×EFmj]
The environmental effectiveness of Hong Kong's logistics sector as a whole and a particular transportation mode mj are determined from Eq. (3a) and (3b):equation(3a)ENVEFF=GHGtotalTVADDequation(3b)ENVEFFmj=GHGmjVADDmjwhere TVADD is the total value added in a particular year in HKD, and VADDmjVADDmj is the value added in a particular year due to the transportation mode mj. Eq. (3a) and (3b) shows hemophilia a lower value of ENVEFF (or ENVEFFmjENVEFFmj) represents the transport mode to be more environmentally friendly.
In addition to the environmental performance, the economic performance in terms of productivity per tonne-km of cargo due to the logistics services needs to be determined and is given in Eq. (4a) and (4b).equation(4a)PRODtotal=TVADD∑mj=14∑di=1k[(WHK→di,mj+Wdi→HK,mj)×DISTHK−di,mj]equation(4b)PRODmj=VADDmj∑di=1k[(WHK→di,mj+Wdi→HK,mj)×DISTHK−di,mj]

1 year ago

Fig nbsp a demonstrated the N adsorption ndash desorption isotherms

Fig. 1 showed the FTIR spectra of ZSM-5 (50) and ZRP-5 (50) samples. The characteristic bands of the silicon–oxygen tetrahedron such as the asymmetric stretching of external vibration bands, asymmetric stretching of internal vibration bands, symmetric stretching, double ring vibration and bending were present in all samples, corresponding to the characteristic peak at 1224, 1098, 799, 545 and 450 cm−1, respectively [24]. Therefore, the ZRP-5 zeolite was assigned to the MFI structure. Meanwhile, the peak observed at 877 cm−1 was due to the P–O–H stretching, verifying that BMS 182874 the phosphorus was introduced into the zeolite frameworks [25]. Moreover, the absorption peak near 3610 cm−1 in the spectrum of ZRP-5 (50) was stronger than that of ZSM-5 (50), which suggested that the amount of terminal hydroxyl groups of ZRP-5 (50) was more than ZSM-5 (50) [18], making the ZRP-5 (50) more hydrophilic than ZSM-5 (50), as verified by the contact angle measurement (see below). Fig. 2 illustrated the XRD patterns of Beta (50), ZRP-5 (50) and ZSM-5 (50) samples. As illustrated in Fig. 2, the diffraction peaks in the range of 2θ = 6.0–9.0° and 23.0–25.0° indicated that the framework of ZRP-5 corresponded well with the MFI structure [26]. The Beta (50) sample showed the typical XRD patterns of the BEA framework structure.

1 year ago

Pyrolysis of the harvested biomass Table Yields

3.5. Pyrolysis of 17-DMAG harvested biomass
Table 2.
Yields (weight% from original biomass) of the fractions collected from the pyrolysis of two strains of B. braunii at 475 °C with and without flocculation with fungi Aspergillus fumigatus.Kossou-4Kossou-4 + A. fumigatusOverjuyo-3Overjuyo-3 + A. fumigatusMean±sdMean±sdMean±sdMean±sdTrap 133.21.736.32.334.91.734.70.43Trap 28.75.14.80.763.420.293.750.25Trap 38.42.19.75.013.30.412.00.3Total liquid506515522511Char28.80.328.50.329.30.129.60.3Mean and sd (standard deviation) from three replicates.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
The chemical composition of the oil collected in the second trap was investigated by GC–MS. The GC–MS traces were characterized by the dominant presence of hydrocarbons, that included phytadienes, phytene and pristene from the thermal cracking of chlorophyll, while an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) in the range of C15–C30 peaked by n-alkenes/n-alkanes probably derived from the thermal cracking of triterpenoids and algaenans ( Nguyen et al., 2003).

1 year ago

Fig xA Illustration of organic solar

PV windows made from c-Si and a-Si ZM447439 are considered to be a mature and well developed technology. Therefore, many studies and various applications have been reported in the literature. On the other hand, emerging PV technologies are still under development and building applications are limited (DSSC) or non-existent (OPV). Apart from electricity generation, PV windows also affect the building?s energy performance by substituting its exterior finishing materials with the creation of a pleasant indoor environment [53]. The transparency of PV window is one of the most important issues in their development, since it is connected to the optical and thermal properties of the window and the building in general. By comparing different PV technologies in a face to face methodology (Fig. 10a) [139] under the same boundary and climatic conditions, the best PV technology can be selected. In similar way, the real energy contribution of the PV system on the overall energy balance of the building can be calculated. In the same methodology, potential problems can also be accessed and key information can be revealed.